March 21, 2006

The Kugelfisher Fuel Injection Pump, Part I

EDITOR'S NOTE: The following articles were originally developed for the Tii Register Newsletter in the 1980s by several subject matter experts. I have edited some of the original copy to reflect things stated 20 years in the past, so you as the reader don't have to guess what year it was written in :)

If you ask a Tii owner what he likes best about his car, he is likely to tell you, “the engine and the cars overall performance”. While the car has a number of features that differ from the 2002, the most outstanding difference is the engine. It’s interesting to realize that until BMWNA decided to import the E30 M3 in 1988, the Tii was the most powerful 4 cylinder BMW ever sold in the USA. Even by today’s standards of electronic wizardry, a properly tuned Tii is a delight to drive with excellent throttle response and enough power output to embarrass many cars you happen to meet.

The Tii's fuel injection system is the most important factor in achieving this level of performance. This key system functions around a small, 4 cylinder mechanical pump that goes by the unusual name of Kugelfischer.

The following information will attempt to provide an overview of the Kugel­fischer pump as it’s used on the Tii, dispel some of the misconceptions about it and suggest ways to live with it happily for many years. We hope you find this overview interesting and helpful.


The pump takes it name from a large German industrial group with the overpowering name of: FAG Kugelfischer Georg Schafer AG. The firm is best known as Fischer AG and the initials “FAG” is used as the trademark for their extensive line of precision ball and roller bearings.

The company is headquartered in Schweinfurt and if any of you are students of the 8th Air Force in the 2nd World War, you’ll remember some very famous air raids over Schweinfurt to destroy Germany’s ball bear­ing industry. I’ll give you one guess who we were bombing! The name Kugelfischer appears to be their telex abbreviated name - a contraction of the name “Fischer” and the German word for ball bearing.

The plant that has built the pumps for a number of years is located in Munich at Truderinger Strasse 191. I am not sure if “FAG” owned “Schafer Einspritztechnik GMBH” from its inception; but they did own and manage this firm as a subsidiary until 1975, when FAG sold the business to Robert Bosch GMBH.

The original company probably had its origins in the aircraft industry that grew up around Munich, beginning with the First World War. They probably had strong business connections with BMW through their massive aircraft engine production programs from the mid 30’s through the 2nd World War. Kugelfischer has built a wide variety of injection pumps for diesel and gas engines over the years and many of these pumps are still in use all over the world.

Bosch continues to supply Kugelfischer pumps and parts but has de-emphasized the use of mechanical injection systems for gasoline auto engine applications. The pumps continue to be used extensively for high performance racing applications such as the BMW M1, in Super Vee and in some of the Porsche Turbo models. The Munich pump plant is used as a fuel injection component fabrication facility by Bosch. It may be only a coincidence, but BMW stopped using the pump about the time that Bosch bought “Schafer Einspritztechnik”. Part of the reason for the change has to be the flexibility of the Bosch “K” and “L” low pressure systems and their better adaptability to tightening emission requirements.

Bosch has continued to maintain service facilities here in the United States and to supply parts. The service is not as energeti­cally supplied as it is with the pure Bosch systems, but It is available. Several injection repair shops go direct to Germany for parts and can supply exchange pumps and special units such as the Turbo pump with fuel enrichment control based on boost pressure.

BMW produced 64,177 vehicles using the Kugelfischer a 6 year period from December 1969 to September 1975. The M10 4 cylinder engine was installed in several models ranging from the 2000 Turbo, the 2002 Til, to the 5201 (E12) which ended its producti run using the K Jetronic system.

History has also shown us that the Kugelfischer pump is a well proven design that will function for 100-150,000 miles without problems, given clean, dry gasoline and adequate lubrication. It makes an excellent car unique - and as such, worthy of preservation.

November 14, 2005

Care of the Throttle Body

Volume 1, Number 2 - 1984

There are 3 points of wear on the throttle body:

1) the pair of bearings that guides the shaft of the throttle activating cam

2) the bearings for the throttle butterfly pins

3) the working side (vertical face) of the throttle activating cam.

Proper maintenance is to put, once a month, a drop or two of oil - I use Gunk spray motorcycle chain oil on the bearings and a wipe of grease on the side of the cam.

The rear section of the butterfly housing will gradually accumulate a coat­ing of blow by, which enters at the vacuum nipple from the breather hose. Remove the air filter; put a brick on the accelerator pedal to hold the butterfly valve in full-throttle position; and spray the inside of the butterfly housing with carb spray. The first tine you do this, it will be necessary to work the deposits with a stiff toothbrush and then carefully work them out with a heavy-duty kitchen towel. There are sharp edges in­side the housing; doubtless, small slivers will be cut off the toothbrush. Be sure to remove all slivers with your paper towel to prevent their be­ing sucked into the induction tract. Spraying the inside of the throttle housing - the butterfly in full throttle position - once a month thereafter should keep it clear of blow by.

Each time you clean the inside of the throttle housing, allow the carb cleaner to dissipate. Then put two drops of oil at the joint of the lower butterfly bearing and, after removing the cap at the top of the throttle body, on the upper bearing. Replace the cap and tighten its two screws. Remove the brick. Work the full range of the accelerator pedal 5 to 10 times. Then reinstall the air cleaner.

Do not use WD-40 to lubricate the 2 pair of bearings. Although it will provide protection against bearing wear, WD-40 attracts dust, which snafus the idle-—it drops and remains down, or it hunts. The dust may also con­tribute to Co variation. The Kugelfischer pump has its own peculiarities at idle; don’t add to them.

November 02, 2005

High Capacity Fuel Tanks for the tii

Original text
by Jeff Mulchahey
Volume 4, Number 1 - July 1988

The following material is essentially a reprint of an article I authored for the Roundel several years ago. Several Register members have expressed an interest in larger fuel tanks for their tiis arid I am printing a slightly revised version for your information. I imagine that if one were to take a survey of 2002/tii owners, one would find that, after the poor ventilation and air conditioning, and after the painful seats that never seem to slide back far enough, and after the tire and wind noise, the smell fuel tank and the requisite frequent fuel stops are a frustration during long distance touring in a tii. The simple obvious solution to this situation is to increase the fuel capacity of your tii.

In the past there have been three ways to increase the fuel capacity of an ‘02/tii. The first of these was to purchase a 90 liter fuel tank from Alpina. While this tank bolted right into the stock location, it stood several inches taller than stock, had to be filled from inside the trunk, and pretty much rendered the right side of the trunk useless.

Because Alpina stopped making ‘02 parts shortly after dinosaurs became extinct, this option is academic. Option two was to install the 70 liter tank from a factory Turbo. This too required raising the trunk floor substantially as the lower portion of the Turbo tank, as well as that of the Alpina tank, was essentially the same as the stock tii tank and all the extra capacity came in the top portion of the tank. This option is (now is no longer available KK), but the parts are listed in the BMW NA price book and of course the tank ties the fittings for the Kugelfisher injection system.

The third route was to replace the spare tire with an auxiliary 10 gallon tank. These tanks are commonly available but even though my original spare tire has never been on the ground in the past 16 years, I’d get nervous without it.

I was discussing this situation with the good people a Miller and Norburn when they informed me that they were installing the tank from an earlier six cylinder model in the ‘02s. Depending on the exact year and model involved, and thus the tank used, the final capacity was 70 to 75 liters (19.1 to 19.8 gallons). We talked for a while, decided on the appropriate tank, fuel pickup, and level sender, talked some more, and finally decided to order the necessary parts from Germany.

After a modest delay for Miller and Norburn to receive the tank, and a less modest delay for me to get around to installing the new tank, I proceeded with the conversion. This work also gave me an excellent opportunity to clean and repaint the tank well. That done, a new OEM gasket was installed, albeit with the exposed edges of the open cell foam (BMW AG, how could you?) sealed with clear silicone sealant, arid the new tank was fitted into place. Surprise, surprise! The new tank fit perfectly, without alterations to the cutout or the tank mounting holes. All that remained was to install the sender and plumb the injection system. The latter usually involves slip-on hoses and the original lengths may be sufficient but I decided to go all out and have AN fittings welded onto the pickup and to plumb in aluminum Aeroquip hose ends. After that it was just a matter of filling the tank arid driving away... Far away.

There are three other details to be attended to in this conversion. First, the new tank does not have the recess for the OEM muffler. I had taken this into account when I tried a large diameter, low restriction exhaust system fabricated for my car. If you were to perform the conversion, you’d have to replace your rear muffler with a smaller muffler. I would suggest getting the tank first and working around it as opposed to thinking your tiny muffler was small enough and then being surprised.

Second, the tank is taller than original and the trunk floor must be raised, but this time it’s only 0.75 to 1.00 inch. That’s not really significant. You only need 0.75 inch but I used 1.00 inch in the form of several pieces of square 1.00 inch aluminum tubing under the trunk flooring, which did the trick for me arid weigh practically nothing. Third, the new tank lacks the extension up to the fuel filler bolted onto the fender. Thus the original tank’s extension must be cut offend mounted to the new tank with some fuel filler hose, unless for some reason you have a very early ‘02 style filler. Perhaps you could do as I did and find an old, rusted tank to cannibalize.

Thank you, Miller and Norburn -- while preserving your old tank. A nice additional touch of the six cylinder fuel tank is the provision for a low fuel warning light. If you wish, this may be wired as were the European cars, to the red “central warning light”, nee brake failure light on our U.S. cars, on the dash.

The most difficult part of the conversion, if the truth of the matter were told, is raising the trunk floor by 1.00 inch. If you’re like me, you won’t want to raise just the tank cover. Rather, you’ll want to raise the entire floor in order to keep it flat. I’ve already mentioned the aluminum bracing around the sides of the trunk floor. I also reinforced the spare tire cover with some 1.00 inch tall x 0.75 inch wood strips and reinforced the tank cover with several 0.25 inch tall x 1.00 inch pieces. That wasn’t tough but you may have to hit the local hobby store to find pieces which are dimensionally accurate.

The front portion of the trunk doesn’t have a even floor so I made one from a 29x1 1 inch piece of 0.25 inch plywood on 0.75 inch tall x 1.00 bracing end covered it to match the rest of the trunk. This raising of the floor will also allow you to accommodate a 185/70x13 tire in the spare tire well; you’ll have to alter the height of the spacers on the bottom of the spare tire cover to accept the wider tire. If you increase the aluminum section to 1.25 inch and elevate the other components accordingly, you can hide a 195/50x15 Pirelli P-7 spore one 6 inch (Alpine) wheel in the spare tire well.

Another detail you might want to attend to is that the right side belt securing the differential mount to the body cannot be withdrawn past the new tank—rather like the famous tii alternator mounting bolt versus the radiator. If your car was put together as mine was, remove the bolt from the rear prior to installing the new inches taller than stock, and reinsert it from the front.

All told the tank makes a terrific addition to a terrific car. The tank itself was a breeze to install. The larger tank is approximately one inch lower than the old tank but most of this is in the area just behind the rear wheels so that the ramp clearance is not affected. Aside from fill-up time you’ll probably never notice the extra volume of the new tank. And if you’re careful, you’ll probably never notice that the trunk floor has been elevated ever so slightly. My new tank is rated at 19.8 gallons although because I’ve never run it dry I’ve only put 17.5 gallons into it. Nevertheless, that is still good for over 400 miles on a cross country run.

I was fortunate that the larger tank matched the original space so well. However, I understand that on some years or models the tank cutout in the trunk floor may have to be enlarged or a mounting hole on the tank altered. Basically it is my understanding that one merely takes the year and type of ’02 (i.e. injected or not) and converts it to the same year and type of appropriate six cylinder model and installs that tank in your 2002.

November 01, 2005

Basic Information on 2002 Electronics

We have all seen numbers on terminals and wire numbers on schematics and perhaps thought nothing about it.

It probably comes as no surprise to learn the numbering is actually part of a German industrial standard and is used on all German cars as well as vehicles produced elsewhere. Let's keep this simple and point out a few basics for you to remember.


1 Lead to ignition points
15 Switched battery voltage — through ignition switch
30 Unswitched battery voltage
31 Ground return
50 Starter solenoid cranking switched voltage

Ground wires are usually brown

And for Bosch Ignition Coils - If the letter “W’ is stamped on the bottom of the coil, it must be used with a ballast resistor.

Ole '177 - The First USA 2002tii

The following story was published in Vol. 8, No. 1 (August 2001) of the TII Register Newsletter.
Original text by Bob Murphy
Photo courtesy of the BMW AG Archive

This title sounds like I am getting ready to describe an old locomotive, but I am going to relate the history and sale of the first Tii certified by the EPA for sale in the U.S.

BMW began building the 02 version of the Tii in April 1971 and promptly made efforts to produce a U.S. certified version. In order to obtain U.S. EPA approval, some fairly minimal testing and changes were necessary, but a test vehicle had to be supplied to the EPA labs in Ann Arbor Michigan for testing. In late April, BMW pulled a European model off the line to be the certification vehicle. This Tii was VIN 2700177, a very basic Chamonix white version with minimum equipment, built April 20,1971. The minor compliance changes were made and the car underwent some minimum road testing and was then flown to the U.S. for delivery to the Ann Arbor labs. The test were completed promptly at the EPA labs and BMW started building US models only 20 days after pulling 177 off the line.

After the tests were run, the car sat at Erhard BMW in Ann Arbor for a year and BMW AG basically forgot about it. One of the EPA Engineers (Peter Hutchins decided he wanted to buy it and BMW AG sold it to him on June 29, 1972. It is noted in the archives that the car was sold directly without going through Hoffman, the official importer. In the years that followed, Peter put a radio in 177, did some rallying and drove it on a random basis. In 1981, with some encouragement from BMWCCA, Peter started the The Register and asked for volunteers in the Roundel to join help create the new special interest group. I still have a copy of the original organization letter from Peter, with assignments and declaring that the register was open for business. I was a member of the original crew and was in charge of technical questions and "fixes".

Now let’s run the calendar ahead to September, 2000. I received a call from Peter saying that he wanted to sell 177 and asked for my assistance in doing so. At that time, 177 had been stored for several years and had run up about 49k miles. Everything was still original, but it needed some brake work and general maintenance. It had minor dings and only minor rusting, despite spending many years in a rust prone climate. I started marketing the car for him and made an initial approach to Mobile Tradition, the Zentrum at Spartanburg and BMW NA, but they were not interested.

When we started talking with private buyers, Peter made a decision that made a sale more difficult. He had another Tii that was partially dismantled, so he decided to sell both cars as a package for $1 5k. He had a couple of lookers but the package deal turned them off. A fellow here in Houston inspected the car and made an offer on 177 only, but estimated it would take about $1000 to do a general fix-up & clean up plus freight to Houston so he passed. Peter finally sold 177 (only) to a collector in Livonia Michigan for $10k, which is the estimate I had given him at the start.

The first production Tii, VIN 2760001 is still in existence and is located in California.

About This Library

The BMW 2002tii Register has been in existance for over 25 years.

Started as a special interest group it has remained largely through the efforts of Bob Murphy who has been kind enough in his years of retirement to share his knowledge to current and prospective owners of these fine cars.

In the days before the internet, there was a newsletter published which contained a lot of great information and experience of early owners. That information has been tucked away on hard copy for some time.

Recently, as part of the change to the electronic age, we have begun the process to convert that information into a more distributable format using the web.

In the months ahead, the great nuggets of information will be listed here. With the great tools of blogging, we get more bang for the buck in terms of editing, revisability and search that you can't get without a lot of effort.

Look forward to upcoming information to be shared here on the blog. For more information about the cars, visit

Keith Kreeger - TII Register Webmaster